Wednesday, January 11, 2012

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A randomised double-blind study comparing sodium feredetate with ferrous fumarate in anaemia in pregnancy.
Sarkate P, Patil A, Parulekar S, Rege NN, Samant BD, Lokhande J, Gupta A, Kulkarni K.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2007 May; 105 (5) :278, 280-1, 284.
PMID: 17915799


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Medarticles Help with one article!

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Hi guys can you help me with the next article, THANKS A LOT!!

Instr Course Lect. 2011;60:373-95.

Top 10 pediatric orthopaedic surgical emergencies: a case-based approach for the surgeon on call.


Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery and Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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Trade Research Newsletter, Winter 2011

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A. Introduction
B. Special Feature
C. Recent Trade Working Papers
D. Working Paper Abstracts

A. Introduction

Welcome to the 59th issue of the World Bank Trade Research Electronic Newsletter, a periodic E-mail publication containing abstracts of recent trade working papers, publications and other works. Additional information on the Bank's Trade Research Team activities can be found on the recent redesigned World Bank Trade Research website ( This provides basic information on research activities in progress, trade working papers, other Bank trade publications, trade newsletters, and links to other trade related web sites. You may also visit the periodically updated website of the World Bank Trade at for additional information on trade and development, including the World Bank trade strategy, aid for trade, trade data and tools, World Bank Institute's activities in the area of capacity-building and training, the Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance, periodic "Trade Notes", "Trade Brief" and "Economic Premise" on topics of current interest and recent events and projects. If you do not wish to receive this electronic bulletin, please send an E-mail message with "Unsubscribe" in the title area to

All of the working papers listed below are available for downloading from the website in the Adobe Acrobat format at the address:

B. Special Feature

  1. Unfinished Business? The WTO's Doha Agenda
    Edited by Will Martin and Aaditya Mattoo, The CEPR and World Bank publication. November 2011.

    The Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is in limbo. After ten years of hard work by skilled negotiators, seeking to identify the interests of different participants and to reconcile them into an overall agreement, no conclusion is in sight. A Doha-weary world faces a difficult "trilemma": to implement all or part of the draft agreements as they stand today; to modify them substantially; or to dump Doha and start afresh. At this critical juncture, this volume aims to provide a better empirical basis for informed choices. It addresses the questions that are relevant to each of the possible scenarios. What benefits precisely does Doha currently offer individual participants and what would be lost if Doha were abandoned? What are the implications of potential modifications proposed to the Doha drafts? And if the WTO did start afresh, what have we learnt from Doha about ways to go?
    Copy of e-book


    1. Introduction - Will Martin, Aaditya Mattoo and Deborah Winkler
    2. Agricultural Market Access - David Laborde and Will Martin
    3. Non-agricultural Market Access - David Laborde and Will Martin
    4. The WTO Agricultural Modalities Proposals and Their Impact on Domestic Support in the EU and the United States - David Blandford and Tim Josling
    5. Services in Doha: What's on the Table? - Ingo Borchert, Batshur Gootiiz and Aaditya Mattoo
    6. Duty Free, a Round for Free and the Least-Developed Countries - Antoine Bouët and David Laborde
    7. The Special Safeguard Mechanism: Previous Studies and Present Outlook - Jason Grant and Karl Meilke
    8. Doha and Trade Facilitation: Lending Specificity to the Multilateral Trade and Development Agenda - Benjamin J. Taylor and John S. Wilson
    9. Aid for Trade: Why, What, and Where Are We? - Bernard Hoekman
    10. Potential Real Income Effects of Doha Reforms - David Laborde, Will Martin and Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
    11. Sectoral Initiatives in the Doha Round - David Laborde
    12. The Hidden Gain of the Doha Round: Lowering the Cost of Trade Wars by Reducing Binding Overhang - Antoine Bouët and David Laborde
    13. What's the Appropriate Agricultural Protection Counterfactual for Trade Analysis? - Kym Anderson and Signe Nelgen
    14. U.S. Anti-dumping: Much Ado about Zeroing - Chad P. Bown and Thomas J. Prusa
    15. Multilateralism beyond Doha - Aaditya Mattoo and Arvind Subramanian

  2. Where to Spend the Next Million? Applying Impact Evaluation to Trade Assistance
    Edited by Olivier Cadot, Ana M. Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, and Aaditya Mattoo, The CEPR and World Bank publication, June 2011.

    The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions towards targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. Most of these latter interventions are based on the new mantra of "aid-for-trade" rather than on hard evidence on what works and what doesn't. Rigorous impact-evaluation is needed to justify these interventions and to improve their design. On the other hand, rigorous evaluation is feasible because unlike traditional trade policy, these interventions tend to be targeted and so it is possible to construct treatment and control groups. When interventions are not targeted, such as in the case of customs reforms, some techniques, such as randomized control trials, may not be feasible but meaningful evaluation may still be possible.
    This book presents a rich set of examples of impact evaluations of trade-related assistance using a range of methods (experimental, quasi-experimental, or "natural experiments") highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context, and the valuable lessons that are already being learnt. The authors argue that systematically building impact evaluation into trade projects could lead to better policy design and a more credible case for "aid-for-trade."
    Copy of e-book


    1. Impact Evaluation of Trade Assistance: Paving the Way - Olivier Cadot, Ana M. Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, and Aaditya Mattoo
    2. Assessing the Impact of Trade Promotion in Latin America - Christian Volpe
    3. Can Matching Grants Promote Exports? Evidence from Tunisia's FAMEX Program - Julien Gourdon, Jean Michel Marchat, Siddharth Sharma and Tara Vishwanath
    4. The Use of Experimental Designs in the Evaluation of Trade‐Facilitation Programs: An Example from Egypt - David Atkin and Amit Khandelwal
    5. Transport Costs and Firm Behavior: Evidence from Mozambique and South Africa - Sandra Sequeira
    6. Half-Baked Interventions: Staggered Pre Shipment Inspections in the Philippines and Colombia - Mohini Datt and Dean Yang
    7. Reforming Customs by Measuring Performance: a Cameroon Case Study - Thomas Cantens, Gaël Raballand, Samson Bilangna, and Marcellin Djeuwo
    8. Aid-for-Trade and Export Performance: The Case of Aid in Services - Esteban Ferro, Alberto Portugal-Perez, and John S. Wilson

  3. IMF/World Bank/WTO Joint Trade Workshop, December 2, 2011

    The first IMF/WB/WTO joint trade workshop was held at the head-quarters of WB with over 150 people attended this event last month. The goal was to exchange views on policy issues of common interest and discuss on-going research projects. The event started with welcoming remarks by the Chief Economist of the WB, Justin Lin. He also introduced the Director-General of WTO, Pascal Lamy, who gave an opening address via video conferencing from Accra, Ghana. Mr. Lamy emphasized the importance of inter-institutional coherence in trade related work, notably in the areas of monitoring, research, statistics, development, and capacity building. He welcomed the initiative of the joint workshop, which will help enhance coherence, and called for it to be held every year. He encouraged the participants to identify concrete steps to develop research co-operation among the three institutions. Speaking after Mr. Lamy, the President of the WB, Robert Zoellick, highlighted the important role of research in these institutions in connecting theory with practice. He encouraged further research on value added trade, trade facilitation by addressing beyond-the-border barriers, better trade data collection, food and agriculture trade, Doha, and the structural reform agenda. He concurred that the workshop should be an annual event. Closing the workshop, the First Deputy Managing Director of IMF, David Lipton, stressed the crucial role of free trade in the global recovery. Despite some rising protectionist pressures recently, he was cautiously optimistic on the global trade agenda. The G20 summit in Cannes signaled openness to fresh and new approaches that include elements of the Doha Development Agenda. Progress towards a pan-Pacific trade deal and growing attention to trade integration in the Middle-East were also encouraging developments.
    For the full program of the Workshop, including all papers, presentations and video recording of the event, please go to our web link.

  4. Book Chapters, Journal Articles and Other Publications

C. Recent Trade Working Papers


D. Working Paper Abstracts 

  • Service Export sophistication and Europe's new growth model (ECACE), Susanna Lundstrom Gable, Saurabh Mishra

    Technology has changed the nature of service activities and made them more productive, tradable and fragmented in the global supply chain. Has Europe's growth been benefiting from the ongoing globalization of services? Services dominate growth in EU-15 countries and, to a lesser extent, in New Member States (NMS) and Accession (ACC) countries. Except in the ACC region, Europe has maintained specialization in service exports. Service productivity, tradability, and exports of modern services are high in EU-15, growing fast in NMS while at a lower pace in ACC. Service export sophistication is important for growth across the region, but especially in NMS.

  • Equilibrium parallel import policies and international market structure, Santanu Roy, Kamal Saggi

    In a North-South vertically differentiated duopoly, the analysis in this paper derives equilibrium government policies towards parallel imports. By incorporating strategic interaction at the policy-setting stage and the product market, the model sheds new light on (i) the effects of parallel import policies on pricing behavior of firms and (ii) the interdependence of national parallel import policies. If demand asymmetry across countries is sufficiently large, the North forbids parallel imports to ensure its firm sells in the South thereby generating international price discrimination - the South's most preferred market outcome - as the equilibrium. When demand structures are relatively similar across countries, the North permits parallel imports and uniform pricing - its most preferred market outcome - obtains.

  • Export diversification in a transitioning economy: the case of Syria (DECPG), Jamus Jerome Lim, Christian Saborowski

    How does the process of export diversification play out in a transitioning economy, especially in light of government policy aimed at trade liberalization? This paper examines this question by considering a directed policy effort by Syria - an economy transitioning from both economic centralization and resource dependence - to liberalize its trade in 2001. In addition to documenting the patterns of diversification at the aggregate level since the implementation of the policy, we also examine factors that are related to diversification at the sectoral level. Our findings suggest that, while Syria has achieved reasonably rapid export diversification, this may to a large extent be the result of structural transformations in the economy, and that further consolidation of diversification gains may require continued policy reform along the lines of strengthening Syria's weak institutional and business environment.

  • Task trade between similar countries, Gene M. Grossman, Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

    The authors propose a theory of task trade between countries that have similar relative factor endowments and technological capabilities but may differ in size. Firms produce differentiated goods by performing a continuum of tasks, each of which generates local spillovers. Tasks can be performed at home or abroad, but off-shoring entails costs that vary by task. In equilibrium, the tasks with the highest off-shoring costs may not be traded. Among the remainder, those with the relatively higher off-shoring costs are performed in the country that has the higher wage and higher aggregate output. The paper discusses the relationship between equilibrium wages, equilibrium outputs, and relative country size and examines how the pattern of specialization reflects the key parameters of the model.

  • Income distribution, product quality, and international trade, Pablo Fajgelbaum, Gene M. Grossman, Elhanan Helpman

    The authors develop a framework for studying trade in horizontally and vertically differentiated products. In their model, consumers with heterogeneous incomes and tastes purchase a homogeneous good and make a discrete choice of quality and variety of a differentiated product. The distribution of preferences generates a nested-logit demand structure such that the fraction of consumers who buy a higher-quality product rises with income. The model features a home-market effect that helps to explain why richer countries export higher-quality goods. It provides a tractable tool for studying the welfare consequences of trade and trade policy for different income groups in an economy.

  • Wage rigidity and disinflation in emerging countries (PRMTR), Julian Messina, Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano

    This paper examines the consequences of rapid disinflation for downward wage rigidities in two emerging countries, Brazil and Uruguay, relying on high quality matched employer-employee administrative data. Downward nominal wage rigidities are more important in Uruguay, while wage indexation is dominant in Brazil. Two regime changes are observed during the sample period, 1995-2004: (i) in Uruguay wage indexation declines, while workers' resistance to nominal wage cuts becomes more pronounced; and (ii) in Brazil, the introduction of inflation targeting by the Central Bank in 1999 shifts the focal point of wage negotiations from changes in the minimum wage to expected inflation. These regime changes cast doubts on the notion that wage rigidity is structural in the sense of Lucas (1976).

  • Export growth and diversification: the case of Peru (PRMED), Javier Illescas, C. Felipe Jaramillo

    This study puts a lens on the rapid growth of exports in Peru's economy, with special attention to two issues. The first one is the role of international price levels as well as export volumes in explaining this growth. The second one is whether Peru has seen a diversification of its exports during this growth episode. The empirical analysis finds that although the increase in international mineral prices has exerted a significant impact in recent years, much of the growth of Peru's export revenues has also been related to an increase in volumes. This finding applies to traditional and non- traditional exports, although the importance of volumes is more predominant for the latter. Some of the evidence suggests that the rises in price and volumes in the mining components could be leading to greater concentration. Nonetheless, there is a clear trend toward diversification among non-traditional exports due to the significant emergence of new export products in recent years.

  • Impact evaluation of trade interventions: paving the way, Olivier Cadot, Ana M. Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, Aaditya Mattoo

    The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions toward targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. On the one hand, rigorous impact-evaluation is needed to justify these interventions and to improve their design. On the other hand, rigorous evaluation is feasible because unlike traditional trade policy, these interventions tend to be targeted and so it is possible to construct treatment and control groups. This paper discusses examples of impact evaluations using a range of methods (experimental and non-experimental), highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context, and the valuable lessons that are already being learned. The authors argue that systematically building impact evaluation into trade projects could lead to better policy design and a more credible case for "aid-for-trade."

  • International trade and inclusive growth: a primer for busy policy analysts (PRMTR), Daniel Lederman

    This note provides two analytical frameworks for understanding the role of trade in promoting inclusive growth in developing economies. A working definition of inclusive growth focuses on long-term, sustained growth associated with productivity growth and employment opportunities for broad portions of households and firms within countries. The frameworks described in this note build on simple household and firm choice models, which require only basic knowledge of development economics. The discussion highlights how these frameworks can help analysts focus on research and policy questions related to the impacts of international trade across the distribution of households and firms within countries. It also discusses publicly available data sets that can be used to explore some aspects of inclusive growth. In addition, the note highlights important caveats that need to be acknowledged by analysts and discusses avenues for future research, which needs to be part and parcel of the inclusive growth agenda.

  • Explaining local manufacturing growth in Chile: the advantages of sectoral diversity, Rita Almeida, Ana M. Fernandes

    This paper investigates whether the agglomeration of economic activity in regional clusters affects long-run manufacturing total factor productivity growth in an emerging market context. It explores a large firm-level panel dataset for Chile during a period characterized by high growth rates and rising regional income inequality (1992-2004). The findings are clear-cut. Locations with greater concentration of a particular sector did not experience faster growth in total factor productivity during this period. Rather, local sector diversity was associated with higher long-run growth in total factor productivity. However, there is no evidence that the diversity effect was driven by the local interaction with a set of suppliers and/or clients. The authors interpret this as evidence that agglomeration economies are driven by other factors, such as the sharing of access to specialized inputs not provided solely by a single sector, such as skills or financing.

  • The time cost of documents to trade (GIAEA), Mohammad Amin

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the number of documents required to export and import and the time it takes to complete all procedures to trade. It shows that an increase in the number of documents required for export and import tends to increase the time cost of shipments. However, this relationship is far from simplistic, varying sharply in magnitude across rich versus poor countries and small versus large countries. One interpretation of this finding is that richer countries that have more resources and smaller countries that rely more on trade invest more in building efficient documentation systems. Hence, in such countries relative to others, increased documentation adds less to the time cost at the margin. At a broader level, the findings suggest caution in interpreting how input-based measures such as the number of required documents to trade affect the quality of the business environment as far as the associated cost is concerned.

  • China and the world trading system, Aaditya Mattoo, Arvind Subramanian

    The WTO has been until recently an effective framework for cooperation because it has continually adapted to changing economic realities. The current Doha Agenda is an aberration because it does not reflect one of the largest shifts in the international economic and trading system: the rise of China. Although China will have a stake in maintaining trade openness, an initiative that builds on but redefines the Doha Agenda would anchor China more fully in the multilateral trading system. Such an initiative would have two pillars. The first is a new negotiating agenda that would include the major issues of interest to China and its trading partners, and thus unleash the powerful reciprocal liberalization mechanism that has driven the WTO process to previous successes. The second is new restraints on bilateralism and regionalism that would help preserve incentives for maintaining the current broadly non-discriminatory trading order.

  • The relative volatility of commodity prices: a reappraisal (PRMTR), Rabah Arezki, Daniel Lederman, Hongyan Zhao

    This paper studies the volatility of commodity prices on the basis of a large dataset of monthly prices observed in international trade data from the United States over the period 2002 to 2011. The conventional wisdom in academia and policy circles is that primary commodity prices are more volatile than those of manufactured products, although most of the existing evidence does not actually attempt to measure the volatility of prices of individual goods or commodities. The literature tends to focus on trends in the evolution and volatility of ratios of price indexes composed of multiple commodities and products. This approach can be misleading. Indeed, the evidence presented in this paper suggests that on average prices of individual primary commodities are less volatile than those of individual manufactured goods. However, the challenges of managing terms of trade volatility in developing countries with concentrated export baskets remain.


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