Monday, March 26, 2012

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On 27 March 2012 00:01, csanthoshms <csanthoshms@gmail.com> wrote:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjom.1997.0089
thank u
urs
santhosh

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[socialactionfoundationforequity:15105 Stolen Childhoods Child Prostitution And Trafficking In Ethiopia

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Stolen Childhoods Child Prostitution And Trafficking In Ethiopia

http://www.eurasiareview.com/26032012-stolen-childhoods-child-prostitution-and-trafficking-in-ethiopia/

Written by: 

Prostitution, perhaps the most distressing form of child abuse in an epidemic throughout Ethiopia. The innocence of a childhood shattered, causing a deep feeling of shame, poisoning the sense of self and excluding the child from education, friends and the broader society. A society, which stands idly by whilst children suffer, speaking not in the face of extreme exploitation, denying the truth of extensive child exploitation and acts not, is a society in collusion. (This article is part of a series; Click the following links for the first and second and thirdinstallments).

In the capital, prostitution abounds, "It is difficult to give an exact figure for the prevalence of child prostitution in Addis Ababa but observation reveals that the numbers are increasing at an alarming rate in the city"1 The joint Save the Children Denmark and Addis Ababa City administration (SCD) study states "Interviewing children revealed that over 50% started engaging in prostitution below 16 years of age. The majority work more than six hours per day"

There are many grades or levels of prostitution, "Some children engage in commercial sex in nightclubs, bars and brothels, while others simply stand on street corners waiting for men to pick them up" (CPAA) The SCD study "identified types of child prostitution: working on the streets; working in small bars; working in local arki or alcohol houses; working in rented houses/beds and; working in rent places for chat/drugs use. Each location exposes the children to different risks and hazards."

"The major problems that have been faced by children engaged in prostitution include: rape, beating, hunger, etc. Based on the responses of children engaged in prostitution, about 45% of them have been raped before they engaged in the activity". (CPAA) The dangers associated with child prostitution affect the girls physical and mental/emotional health. Violent physical abuse, being hit and raped is common, Birtuken a 17 year old child sex worker (CSW), "prostitution is disastrous to the physical and social wellbeing of a person." (CPAA) The impact on the long-term mental health of a child working in prostitution, can often cause chronic psychological problems, "the emotional health consequences of prostitution include severe trauma, stress, depression, anxiety, self-medication through alcohol and drug abuse; and eating disorders.2

The risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and HIV/Aids is great, so too the chances of unwanted pregnancies, as men, immersed in selfishness and ignorance, refuse to wear condoms. Their arrogance and macho bravado is a major cause in the spread of HIV/Aids in Ethiopia USAID3 suggests, "1.3million people are now living with the virus in the country". It is estimated that "70 per cent of female infertility is caused by sexually transmitted diseases that can be traced back to their husbands or partners."4 "Women in prostitution have been blamed for this epidemic of STDs when, in reality, studies confirm that it is men who buy sex in the process of migration who carry the disease from one prostituted woman to another and ultimately back to their wives and girlfriends." (EoP)

There are various causes for the growth in child prostitution in urban and rural areas as well as Addis Ababa, arranged marriages, illegal under Federal Law is cited as a key factor, "Research carried out in 2005 established that most victims of commercial sexual exploitation found in the streets of Addis Ababa had been married when they were below 15 years of age" (SAACSEC) In highlighting the factors that drive children away from their homes and into commercial sex work, the CPAA study found that "Most of the child prostitutes came from regions to look for a job, due to conflicts at home, early marriage and divorce. Poverty, death of one or both parents, child trafficking, high repetition rates and drop out from school and lack of awareness about the consequence of being engaged in prostitution are key factors that push young girls to be involved in commercial sex work". (CPAA) In addition to arranged marriage, which is a significant cause, the study found that "the major reasons identified by the children themselves for engaging in commercial sex work are: poverty (34%), dispute in family (35%), and death of mother and/or father. 40% joined prostitution either to support themselves or their parents. Quite a large number of girls (35%) have joined prostitution due to violence within the home. Thus violence within the family is the main cause for children fleeing from home."

The causes listed are complex and interrelated. At the epicenter of these diverse reasons though sits the family. Conflict at home is for many girls (and boys) the force driving them away from family and onto the streets of Addis Ababa, or one of the provincial towns and cities. Division and conflict grow from many seeds, repeated physical abuse at the hands of a parent or stepparent, rape at the hands of a Father, stepfather or extended family member, physical and verbal abuse, all are factors that force girls to leave the home and seek release from what has become a prison like existence of servitude, intimidation and fear. "When physical and psychological punishment becomes intolerable, it may lead to the child running away from home. Girls tend to become prostitutes when they run away from home." (VACE2)

Another burgeoning group from which many children fall into the net of prostitution is that resulting from HIV-orphans who have lost their parents to the virus. "Ethiopia has one of the largest populations of orphans in the world: 13 per cent of Ethiopian children have lost one or both parents…the number of children orphaned solely by HIV/AIDS has reached over 1.2 million. These children find themselves at a very high risk of entering commercial sex to survive, yet there is very limited support available for them either from government [emphasis mine}."(AACSE)

Coherent or dysfunctional, the social fabric is a tapestry of interrelated, interconnected strands. Neglect by the Ethiopian Government in areas diverse, and fundamental is the glue that is binding together a polluted stream of suffering and pain.

Bussed In Married Off

In 2006/7, I worked with the Forum for Street Children Ethiopia (FSCE), running education projects for the children in their care. Girls living and working on the streets, mainly the hectic cobbled broken pathways around the Mercato Bus station. "This extremely poor neighborhood in the city has become 'the epicentre of the capital's illegal [emphasis mine] industry of child prostitution'5

The children at FSCE ranged in age, although many did not even know their date of birth; most the children do not have documentation "the problem is further aggravated by a widespread lack of birth registration" (CPAA). Some were as young as 11 years old, "over 50% started engaging in prostitution below 16 years of age" the study states. "In almost every case the girls come to the city from the countryside, their families cast many out, others sent to Addis to work". Arriving at the city's main bus-station, shrouded in naivety and fear, with little or no education, the girls make easy pickings for the men that greet them, with a warm smile, and a cunning mind only to mistreat, use and exploit them. With nowhere else to go, and no alternatives, the girls find themselves working the street and the journey into the painful, destructive prison of prostitution has begun.

Many, according to Save the Children Denmark (STCD), come from the Amhara region, the second most populated region, with a population of over 20 million. These children arrive in the capital knowing nobody, with (probably) no money and no contacts."Enforced child marriages, abuse, and the prospects of ending their days in the grip of poverty are factors pushing Ethiopian girls as young as nine years of age'" (VACE), to risk their childhood and their lives in the city. According to (CPAA) "There are many factors pushing the girls away from the region, (Amhara) including poverty, peer pressure and abuse. But child marriage is one of the most common explanations we hear when interviewing the girls," Arranged marriages are widespread in the (Amhara) region in the north of Ethiopia, where young girls, children are forced to marry adult men, all too often this 'union' results in rape, abuse and violence, from which the innocent child is forced to flee, only into the clutches of exploitation, violence and abuse. And do they recover, is there healing and release, is a childhood stolen, a childhood lost, let us pray it is not so.

Marriages entered into unwillingly by extremely young girls, some as young as seven years old usually in exchange for reparations of some kind, money, cattle, land, lead all too often to abuse and violence, "traditional practices like female genital mutilation (FGM) and early marriage, are causes for the increased violence against children." 14-year-old boy 6 "in Wolmera Woreda, the practice of FGM is nearly universal since girls must be circumcised before marriage." (VACE2) Once committed to a marriage, by parents who often regard the child as no more than an object to be traded, the girl is frequently raped and mistreated and treated as a servant. "Abduction, rape and early marriage may ultimately lead many girls to prostitution. Early marriage and abduction seldom produce successful marriages. In fact, such relationships are short-lived. As a result, most of these young girls run far away from their husbands in an attempt to start a new and happier life elsewhere. Unfortunately, many of them end up as prostitutes.' (VACE2)

"Early marriage is illegal (except under particular circumstances), weak law enforcement [Emphasis mine] allows this practice to be widely followed throughout Ethiopia; the phenomenon is reported in almost every region of the country. Nationwide, 19 per cent of girls were married by the age of 15 and about half were married by the age of 19; in Amhara region, 50 per cent of girls were married by the age of 15. "When the marriage finally collapses, the girls usually migrate to urban areas since breaking a marriage arranged by their relatives is considered a shameful act and they are no longer welcome within their families and communities. Once in larger towns they end up living in the streets given their lack of skills to find employment. Such dire circumstances lead many girls to be exploited in commercial sex." (CPAA)

To break free of a forced marriage entered into against the child's will, and be punished by banishment from the family home, is a form of social injustice based on traditions, which have long failed to serve the children, the family or the community at large. It is time long since past that these practice's where changed. Education, cultivating tolerance and understanding of the Human Rights of the Child are keys to undoing such outdated destructive sociological patterns, together with the enforcement of the law to deter parents and prospective 'husbands'.

No Options, No Hope

No child enters into prostitution when they have a choice, "prostitution is seen as a social ill that is unaccepted, prohibited and fought in most parts of our continent. Prostitution is not only a question of morality but a human problem, a problem of human exploitation, a problem of societal failure in providing equal opportunities." (CPAA) "At the end (of the interview) Belaynesh said that no girl/woman would like to be a prostitute but the problems force them to be in such a situation." The circumstances that lead a young girl away from the games and innocence of childhood and what should be, the love and gentle kindness of her family, into the shadows of prostitution, may vary and circumstances differ, suffering though is common to all those forced into such a lifestyle, the impact long lasting and severe, the consequences dire, destroying many lives.

The children at FSCE in Mercato told us their stories, often with shame, through tears and embarrassment, always with pain. A thread connected them all, yes poverty, was a major issue, so too poor education however, the stream that united the group of wonderful 11 to 18 year olds, was a breakdown in human relationships, of one kind or another. Once outside the family, and society, young girls desperate to survive have little choice but to work as CSW. For those recruiting and selling girls It is a business, for the children on the streets it a torture. "Almost all respondents do not like prostitution (99%). Almost all the girls are involved in prostitution not because they like what they are doing but due to other factors, to support themselves or their families." (CPAA) "Child prostitution [is] a big business involving a whole series of actors from abductors at bus stations, to blue taxis and bar/hotel owners who tend to see children as the spices of their trade. The business actors, oblivious to pervasive taboos, have long abandoned recruiting adult prostitutes." (CPAA)

Trafficking Lives

Child prostitution and trafficking of children are inextricably linked. They are of course both illegal. All international conventions, from The Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) to International Labor Organisation (IL0), as one would expect, outlaw them. So too do Ethiopia's Federal laws, "The 1993 Labor Proclamation forbids employment of young persons under the age of 14 years. Employment in hazardous work is also forbidden for those under 18. The Penal Code provides means for prosecuting persons sexually or physically abusing children and persons engaging in child trafficking including juveniles into prostitution. Federal Proclamation no.42/93 protects children less than 14 years not to engage in any kind of formal employment." (CPAA) And yet both child prostitution and the trafficking of minors goes on, and on and on. "The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reported that girls are trafficked both within the country and abroad to countries in the Middle East and to South Africa."7

Children are brought from rural areas of Ethiopia to the capital city by brokers, "ttraffickers, who feed on parent's low awareness with false promises of work and education for their offspring." The numbers are staggering, the money tiny, the damage unimaginable "up to 20,000 children, some 10 years old, are sold each year [for around $1.20 to $2.40] by their parents and trafficked by unscrupulous brokers to work in cities across Ethiopia."8 And who would do such a thing. Who would 'sell' an innocent child; condemn a child to slavery and brutal exploitation, pain and acute distress? "These traffickers are 'typically local brokers, relatives, family members or friends of the victims. Many returnees are also involved in trafficking by working in collaboration with tour operators and travel agencies"9 "The Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism has not been signed by any travel and tourism company in Ethiopia." (CPAA) The Ethiopian Government acting in the interest of the children upon their homeland, and their responsibilities under international law, should rightly and immediately make all tour operators sign the afore mentioned treaty, or face closure, and criminal prosecution.

"The International Organization for Migration (IOM) stated that Ethiopian children are being sold for as little as US$ 1.20 to work as domestic servants or to be exploited in prostitution." The Middle East is the major international destination of choice for traffickers, "Many Ethiopian women working in domestic service in the Middle East face severe abuses indicative of forced labor, including physical and sexual assault, denial of salary, sleep deprivation, and confinement. Many are driven to despair and mental illness, with some committing suicide. Ethiopian women are also exploited in the sex trade after migrating for labour purposes – particularly in brothels, mining camps, and near oil fields in Sudan – or after escaping abusive employers in the Middle East."10 "At least 10,000 have been sent to the Gulf States to work as prostitutes."(CTE) Let us not even begin to look at the complicity of such states in the destruction of the lives of these children and women, the 'little ones' that dance upon the waters of life, seeking only a gentle heart to trust, finding the dark days of Rome, and in despair we cry "Men's wretchedness in soothe I so deplore,"11

Prime Minister Meles loves to 'talk the talk' to his western allies, the US, Britain, the European Union and the like, whilst turning a blind eye, a deaf ear to the cries of the child being beaten, the young girl being raped and traded for sex and the teenager separated from her family, her friends and her childhood, sold into servitude and abuse within Ethiopia and across the Red Sea in the oil rich 'Gulf States'.

(This article is part of a series; Click the following links for the first and second and thirdinstallments).

Notes:
1. Addis Ababa City Admin Social & NGO Affairs Office (SNGOA), Save the Children Denmark (SCD) and ANNPPCAN-Ethiopian. Child Labor in Ethiopia with special focus on Child Prostitution Study. 'Child Prostitution in Addis Ababa 2006 (CPAA)
2. Health Effects of Prostitution (EOP), Janice G. Raymond
3. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/africa/ethiopia.html
4. Jodi L. Jacobson, The Other Epidemic
5. Sofie Loumann Nielsen. The Reporter 10 September 2010
6. Violence against children in Ethiopia (VACE). Africa Child Policy Forum
7. http://www.childtrafficking.org/cgi-bin/ct/main.sql?ID=2067&file=view_document.sql
8. ILO. http://www.childtrafficking.org/cgi-bin/ct/main.sql?file=view_document.sql&TITLE=-1&AUTHOR=-1&THESAURO=-1&ORGANIZATION=-1&TOPIC=-1&GEOG=-1&YEAR=-1&LISTA=No&COUNTRY=-1&FULL_DETAIL=Yes&ID=2067. (CTE)
9. Ecpat Global Monitoring report status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children, Ethiopia. (AACSE)
10. http://ovcs.blogspot.com/2008/01/ethiopia-is-source-country-for-human.html
11. Faust Part One, Mephistopheles.

--
Truth resides in every human heart, and one has to search for it there, and to be guided by truth as one sees it. But no one has a right to coerce others to act according to his own view of truth. - Mohandas Gandhi
 
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[socialactionfoundationforequity:15105 TALKING HEADS: Bringing light in the dark of SA’s prisons

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TALKING HEADS: Bringing light in the dark of SA's prisons

SA was successfully prosecuted at the United Nations over its human rights failures, but the fight is not over, writes Carolyn Raphaely
Published: 2012/03/26 07:35:43 AM

WHILE politicians have spent much time of late pontificating about respecting the human rights enshrined in SA's constitution, no one would have blamed Port Elizabeth attorney Egon Oswald if he appeared just a tad cynical. For Oswald is the first South African lawyer to have prosecuted SA with human rights violations and torture at the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Commission in Geneva and won his case, Bradley McCallum vs SA.

Acting on behalf of the tattooed and toothless St Albans Prison inmate, the attorney who runs a one-man practic e from an old house in Port Elizabeth's Bird Street, was last year voted human rights lawyer of the year by the Cape Law Society for his efforts.

"The first time I saw Egon, I knew he was the one who would show the world how we were treated inside," says McCallum, now released on parole. "He gave me the confidence to talk about what happened."

Although McCallum and Oswald's "journey" to Geneva is a David and Goliath tale of the triumph of good over evil and the small man over the state, the last chapter remains to be written. Now Oswald is suing Correctional Services Minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula for damages on behalf of McCallum and 230 others. Based on their constitutional right to be free from torture, it's likely to be the largest damages claim yet instituted against correctional services.

McCallum, for one, was raped by a St Albans' Prison warder using a baton during the winter of 2005. He was also beaten, attacked by dogs, trampled on and given electric shocks during a prison-wide orgy of violence in retribution for the murder of fellow warder Babini Nqakula — a relative of then safety and security minister Charles Nqakula , husband of Mapisa-Nqakula.

"About 70 prisoners from Bradley's section were forced to run naked down a corridor through a tunnel of about 50 warders," Oswald says. "They were beaten, sprayed with water and forced to lie on the wet floor in a long human chain with their noses pressed into the anus of the person in front of them.

"The warders beat them with batons, broom sticks, shock boards, pool cues and pickaxe handles. As result of the terror and electric shocks, the prisoners urinated and defecated on each other.

Forced to run back into their cell, many of the inmates incurred further injuries as they slipped, tripped and fell on top of each other on the wet floor which was covered in water, urine, faeces and blood."

To make matters worse, Oswald says they were denied access to medical assistance for a month as well as HIV/AIDS testing, and other privileges such as a phone, access to legal representation and family: "They tried to treat themselves by burning toilet paper, then applying ash and sand to their wounds." He has photographs and medical records to prove their allegations.

Predictably, McCallum is one of Oswald's greatest fans: "Egon is different from other people. He cares about other human beings and shows respect to everyone. He doesn't look down on people, or judge them. He's a cool person, an angel in disguise. He is my hero. "

Oswald also happens to be doggedly determined and highly principled. Even after the UN found in 2010 that SA had violated its obligations in terms of at least two conventions — the UN Convention on Torture, Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment, and the UN Convention on Civil and Political Rights — he had no intention of abandoning his fight.

Driven by what he describes as a "complete antipathy to the abuse of power", Oswald was incensed by the fact that SA ignored five requests by the UN to respond to McCallum's allegations. Not to mention the fact that the "darling" of the international human rights community was also flouting the provisions of its own constitution.

"Egon's success at the UN was an outstanding, significant achievement — particularly because of the international recognition and implications for human rights in SA," says Cape Law Society councillor William Booth. "Hopefully, his case will cast some light on the inhumane conditions in our jails and bring about some necessary change."

In post-apartheid SA, it wasn't surprising that Oswald's initial response when told about events in St Albans was disbelief. However, when the complaints turned from a trickle into a flood, he realised the reports were consistent and correct.

"All my clients were injured, some far worse than Bradley," he says. "They had bruises, blunt force contusions, dog bites and broken limbs. "

So when all independent oversight mechanisms failed and no action was taken against the warders, Oswald realised he had to access a different set of laws. To date, despite the UN ruling, SA has failed to prosecute those responsible and an official investigation remains incomplete. Nor has SA published the UN findings as instructed, or provided the international body with requested information.

As Oswald sees it, the case is about "unethical leadership, the abuse of power and the catastrophic failure of internal control mechanisms. This really ticks me off. The UN views represent a great opportunity for SA to take a diplomatic high road, to demonstrate to the world that we're willing to take a lead with regard to human rights issues."

As a former commercial lawyer, Oswald seemed an unlikely candidate to take up these cudgels.

"I wasn't looking for this case. It was ways too big for me and my small practice. But I do believe that if you do the right thing, things always work out."

For the past seven years, Oswald has funded the litigation himself, on behalf of McCallum and the other inmates.

When former St Albans inmate Bafo Duru first met Oswald, he "knew straight away that justice would be served. He's that kind of man. Money is not our first priority, nor is it his. It won't really change anything for us. The best compensation will be when the people who injured us are punished and get what they deserve in terms of the law."

Meantime, Oswald has his work cut out as he processes individual applications for each of his 231 clients.

He's adamant that the upcoming damages claim does not become a financial footnote in Department of Correctional Services' books — the reason he's currently preoccupied with laying the groundwork for a Constitutional Court case.

"This matter is about total disregard for human rights in a system where brutality is the order of the day.

"Some of the warders involved in the case are still in their same jobs at St Albans. I believe that the rule of law must be upheld and public officials held accountable. It's a matter of principle.

"I'm not the same person I was when I first met these guys. I'm even more determined to seek justice now, not less."

• Raphaely is a member of the Wits Justice Project which investigates alleged miscarriages of justice.

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Truth resides in every human heart, and one has to search for it there, and to be guided by truth as one sees it. But no one has a right to coerce others to act according to his own view of truth. - Mohandas Gandhi
 
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[socialactionfoundationforequity:15104 Vancouver sex-trade workers see partial victory in Ontario ruling

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Brothels, bawdy houses and hiring security to become legal options for prostitutes

 

Metro Vancouver's sex workers and their advocates claimed a partial victory Monday after Ontario's Court of Appeal swept aside some of the country's anti-prostitution laws, ruling them unconstitutional.

The landmark decision means sex workers will be able to hire drivers, bodyguards and support staff as well as work indoors in organized brothels or "bawdy houses," while "exploitation" by pimps remains illegal.

However, the law prohibiting prostitutes from openly soliciting customers on the street was upheld. The judges deemed that provision "a reasonable limit on the right to freedom of expression."

The appeal stemmed from the legal oddity that while prostitution itself was not illegal in Canada, many activities surrounding it were, including running a brothel or bawdy house, communicating for the purpose of prostitution and living on money earned by a prostitute.

The Ontario decision is binding in that province only but will undoubtedly prompt similar challenges in other areas of the country. The ruling is almost guaranteed to land before the Supreme Court of Canada, as both sides had earlier promised to appeal if the ruling went against them.

Any decision by the Supreme Court on the issue would apply countrywide.

In Vancouver, sex worker Susan Davis praised the ruling at a press conference organized by the Downtown Eastside's Pivot Legal Society Monday. Davis said the decision to strike down laws on living off the avails of prostitution — making money off of prostitution-related activity — will free up a variety of people, such as landlords, bodyguards and drivers, to be paid by sex workers.

"It allows us to fearlessly hire security guys without fearing that that guy would be arrested," said Davis, who is also a vocal campaigner for sex workers' rights. "The way the law is written now in terms of living off the avails — a baby that is suckling from its mother's breast is living off the avails of prostitution, so certainly some clarification needed to be added."

Under the reworked legislation, which goes into effect in 30 days, the law would still apply to pimps and others police deem to be exploiting prostitutes.

The change will allow sex workers to stop making "backroom deals" when hiring security personnel Davis said, adding sex workers will be able to vet them more thoroughly. In the past, bodyguards and drivers have had no training or accreditation and have been known to steal money from prostitutes or be ineffective in stopping johns from becoming violent, she added.

However Pivot lawyer Katrina Pacey questioned the court's decision to let law enforcement decide when to enforce the avails law.

"[The court] read in the language that the living off the avails [law] will only apply in circumstances where exploitation is evident," she said. "The question is: whose definition of exploitation?"

Meanwhile, the law prohibiting brothels and bawdy houses will remain in effect for another year to allow the federal government to update the Criminal Code.

But according to Davis, many prostitutes already operate bawdy houses out of their own homes, as she does. Leaving the law in place for another year will only serve to push more prostitutes into areas where they are vulnerable to assault.

"It's our assertion that lots of the workers are on the street because there is nowhere to work inside and by closing the brothels over the years they've narrowed people's choices and forced them into dangerous conditions," Davis said, adding that at least the new law will eventually put a stop to the police raids that serve only to "frighten and harm" sex workers.

However leaving laws in place that prohibit soliciting customers in public or communicating for the purposes of prostitution will continue to put sex-workers in danger, said Dr. Kate Shannon, a sexual health specialist with the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS who works with prostitutes.

"Sex workers continue to experience high rates of violence and murder across Canada," she said Monday. "Work by our group has shown that these laws and the enforcement of the communicating provision really displaces sex workers to isolated spaces, dark alleys [and] industrial settings.

"We've seen that this displacement is associated directly with a twofold increase in risk of violence for sex workers, irrespective of other factors."

The law also pushes sex workers away from health services and perpetuates an adversarial relationship with police, she said.

While the federal government is expected to appeal the ruling, the Ontario judges deemed its attempt to salvage prostitution prohibitions were unconstitutional because it "implies that those who choose to engage in the sex trade are for that reason not worthy of the same constitutional protection as those who engage in other dangerous, but legal enterprises."

The three majority justices of the five-judge panel wrote in their decision that it was not their place to determine whether prostitution is morally acceptable. "Prostitution is a controversial topic, one that provokes heated and heartfelt debate about morality, equality, personal autonomy and public safety," they wrote.

"It is not the court's role to engage in that debate. Our role is to decide whether or not the challenged laws accord with the Constitution, which is the supreme law of the land."

The original constitutional challenge was mounted by three Ontario sex-trade workers who claimed the laws prevented them from taking basic safety precautions, such as hiring bodyguards, working indoors or spending time assessing potential clients in public.

In 2010, Ontario Superior Court Judge Susan Himel agreed with them, ruling the increased danger for prostitutes was "simply too high a price to pay for the alleviation of social nuisance."

The debate fell across a backdrop of carnage against street prostitutes, including serial killer Robert Pickton and missing women across Alberta.

The federal and provincial governments appealed for the reinstatement of the three laws that remained in place until Monday's decision.

It took nine months of deliberation after a week of intense oral arguments last summer and stacks of written material — more than 25,000 pages of evidence in 88 volumes — to reach a decision.

mhager@postmedia.com

Twitter:@nationalpost.com



Read more: http://www.vancouversun.com/Vancouver+trade+workers+partial+victory+Ontario+ruling/6362827/story.html#ixzz1qHepTyKv
 

--
Truth resides in every human heart, and one has to search for it there, and to be guided by truth as one sees it. But no one has a right to coerce others to act according to his own view of truth. - Mohandas Gandhi
 
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[socialactionfoundationforequity:15103 Zhejiang scraps mandatory HIV testing for addicts

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Zhejiang scraps mandatory HIV testing for addicts

Updated: 2012-03-27 07:31

By Wang Hongyi in Shanghai (China Daily)


East China's Zhejiang province has scrapped its mandatory HIV testing for drug addictsamove seen as great progress in protecting privacy.

Under current regulations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Zhejianglaw enforcementofficers should notify local disease prevention and control departments after arresting drugaddictsand work with them to carry out mandatory HIV tests on drug addicts.

Lu Hanfudeputy director of the Legislative Affairs Commission of the Zhejiang ProvincialPeople's Congresssaid mandatory HIV testing of drug addicts has no legal basiswhich is thereason the commission made the revision.

The move came after the Administrative Coercion Law - which aims to provide a legal basis toguarantee and supervise the administrative bodiesperformance - took effect this yearThe lawalso aims to protect the rights and interests of citizens.

"The country hasn't actually enacted any special laws or regulations in carrying out mandatoryHIV testing on drug addicts," Lu said.

According to current regulations in Chinathe State should implement voluntary HIV counselingand testingMany provinces and citieshoweverstipulate mandatory HIV testing for drugaddicts.

For exampleJiangsu's provincial regulation stipulates that the public security bureausjudicialdepartments and health departments should carry out HIV tests for arrested prostitutes anddrug addicts.

Shaanxi province stipulates that the public security department should notify the local diseaseprevention and control department when prostitutes and drug addicts are arrestedAfterreceiving the noticedisease prevention and control departments should carry out HIV testsunder the assistance of public security departments.

Statistics from the Ministry of Health showed a rapid spread of HIV/AIDSand the HIV infectionrate through drug use dropped to 38.5 percent in 2008 from about 70 percent in 2000.

Drug addicts are classified as a high-risk group for HIV infectionand are also the focus ofHIV/AIDS prevention work.

"So farmandatory HIV testing for drug addicts is a common practice across the countryTheremoval of the rule can be seen as major progress in protecting the individual privacy of drugaddicts," said Liu Yigea Beijing lawyer who provides legal consultation in a civil organization.

"Once their personal information is disclosedit will bring uncountable harm for drug addicts,making it harder for them to return to normal life," Liu saidnoting that other provinces andcities should follow Zhejiang's example.

But some experts said the abolition of the rule may make it more difficult to prevent and controlthe spread of HIV among high-risk groupsand they called for new rules.

"From the point of HIV/AIDS prevention and controlnew legal measures with higher legal effectshould be set up to make up for the absence of HIV/AIDS management," Chu Chenge,associate professor at Northwest University of Politics and Lawsaid.

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Truth resides in every human heart, and one has to search for it there, and to be guided by truth as one sees it. But no one has a right to coerce others to act according to his own view of truth. - Mohandas Gandhi
 
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Re: Medarticles Please help me with this book !

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Wow! Not on topic, nothing to do with 'Med'Articles, but I would be interested in a copy!!

On Sun, Mar 25, 2012 at 11:40 AM, Nicolas Benavides <nicolasbenavides@gmail.com> wrote:

1. 

New Frontiers in Technical Analysis

Effective Tools and Strategies for Trading and Investing
2. John Wiley & Sons
3. Pub date: 24/08/2011

I appreciate any help,
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Re: Medarticles Full text article required

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attached
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

On 26 March 2012 23:44, vishnu vardhan <vishnuvardhan.em@gmail.com> wrote:
Respected members,

Could you please send me a full text text article

title: Experimental Models of Anxiety for Drug Discovery and Brain
Research
Peter C. Hart, Carisa L. Bergner, Amanda N. Smolinsky, Brett D.
Dufour, Rupert J. Egan, Justin L. LaPorte and Allan V. Kalueff
mouse models for drug disovery
journal name : Methods in Molecular Biology, 2010, Volume 602, 299-321
URL : http://www.springerlink.com/content/k85m3k50042153m1/#section=615338&page=13&locus=17

Thank you

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Medarticles article request

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kindly arrange the following article
http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjom.1997.0089
thank u
urs
santhosh

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Medarticles Full text article required

Buzz It
Respected members,

Could you please send me a full text text article

title: Experimental Models of Anxiety for Drug Discovery and Brain
Research
Peter C. Hart, Carisa L. Bergner, Amanda N. Smolinsky, Brett D.
Dufour, Rupert J. Egan, Justin L. LaPorte and Allan V. Kalueff
mouse models for drug disovery
journal name : Methods in Molecular Biology, 2010, Volume 602, 299-321
URL : http://www.springerlink.com/content/k85m3k50042153m1/#section=615338&page=13&locus=17

Thank you

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Investment Climate News: Rwanda Leaps Forward, Burkina Faso Gains Recognition as One of Africa's Active Reformers, Indonesia Addresses Investment Climate Issues, and more...

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Supported by investment climate teams of the World Bank Group and the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) since 2006, the government of Burkina Faso has implemented reforms benefiting the country's private sector and raising its global economic standing. According to an external evaluator, these reforms have yielded private sector investments of $8 million, the formalization of 1000 new businesses and the creation of about 2,400 new jobs within the past three years.

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Investment Climate teams of the World Bank Group have been working with several city and provincial authorities across Indonesia engaging public and private sector stakeholders at both the sub-national and national levels to help to businesses set up and operate more easily, create investment and to improve the regulatory framework in key sectors like agribusiness and energy efficient infrastructure.

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