Wednesday, July 25, 2012
From: Change.org <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Wed, Jul 25, 2012 at 10:15 PM
Subject: Save 15 chimpanzees from testing
Truth resides in every human heart, and one has to search for it there, and to be guided by truth as one sees it. But no one has a right to coerce others to act according to his own view of truth. - Mohandas Gandhi
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kindly provide me the book chapter
Chapter 41 – Anatomy, Histology, Embryology, and Developmental Anomalies of the Esophagus
Roy C. Orlando
Long JD, Orlando RC. Anatomy, histology, embryology, and developmental anomalies of the esophagus. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 41.
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Here's how this cool little carb binge experiment went down… I just went on a 12-day trip where the first 7 days were spent in beautiful Turks & Caicos with my girlfriend and also my good friends Dr. Kareem (the author of the popular Double Edged Fat Loss program) and his wife Karen.
The next 5 days of our trip was spent on the east coast of the US visiting my parents and helping them to do a lot of spring yardwork, etc. before coming back home last night to a springtime snowstorm here in the rocky mountains of Colorado (hello May powder day tomorrow at A-basin!)
Since I knew that high carbohydrate temptations were going to be everywhere during this 12 day trip (yes, even at my parents house!), I decided to not try to fight the urge to indulge, but rather, just indulge like crazy in the extra carbs, and shift my training program to benefit from the extra carbs for muscle building… and then shift back to a low carb "paleo" style nutrition plan upon returning.
The Priming Phase
In order for this carb binge to work favorably and not just pack on loads of body fat, I had to "prime" my body for about 10 days prior to this trip by going very low carb and using a specific style of training. Then, my body would be primed to utilize the extra carbs during my trip for muscle glycogen and using a high volume "pump" style training program to shift focus to muscle building.
The low-carb phase is also used to increase insulin sensitivity and improve the efficiency of the body in regulating blood sugar. I've actually used similar low-high carb cycling (combined with the appropriate training style) throughout this past winter and have seen some great gains in strength and lean muscle mass, and also reduced bodyfat a couple % too!
Here's how I maximized the benefits of this high-carb and low-carb cycling:
First, during the 10-day low carb "priming" phase, I didn't eat any breads, cereals, pasta, or any grains at all… none! I only ate a small amount of daily carbs from berries and lots of veggies. This phase was mostly healthy fats and protein.
I ate almost entirely meat and veggies, lots of eggs (yes, including the yolks!), nuts, cheese, seeds, some berries, lots of almond butter on celery, supplemental protein and fiber (this grass-fed raw whey is my favorite new protein), veggies and hummus, lots of avocados, olive oil, coconut oil and cream. All of the meats I eat at home are always grass-fed or free range organic meats (bison, beef, venison, and some free range local chicken or pork).
The low-carb priming phase workouts
When you're going low carb, it's no time to try to do high volume training… meaning, you won't be able to achieve a "pump", so it makes more sense to do 2 specific styles of training:
1. Very heavy weight low rep training for max strength — This type of training was the first 30 minutes of each workout during the low carb phase and included mostly heavy deadlifts, barbell squats, weighted pullups, and bench press. The goal of this training is to maintain lean muscle and max strength on a low carb phase. Reps per set would be no more than 3-4 reps, which means HEAVY training.
The absolute BEST supersets for this style of super heavy training is deadlifts paired with bench, and squats paired with weighted pullups. The reason that pullups and deadlifts can't be paired together is that they're both grip intensive and will hurt the results on each other if paired.
2. High intensity metabolic training – This type of training was the second 30 minutes of each workout during the low carb phase and involves more "circuit" style training at high intensity and almost no rest in between sets. One of the killer combos I used was this:
The goal of this style of training for the second 30 minutes of each workout was simply to get a super high metabolic response and further deplete muscle glycogen and burn body fat.
I did this style of training and super low carb nutrition plan for about 10 days leading up to my trip, which I planned to go on a carb bender and indulge in whatever high-calorie high-carbohydrate foods I wanted during my trip.
Weird side note: Oddly enough, as much as I enjoyed the carbohydrate bender and eating loads of breads, pasta, and desserts on my trip, I actually really enjoyed the super low carb strict phase too. Overall, I think I just feel better and more mentally clear, and with more energy when I'm eating a lower carb "paleo" style of diet. But I won't lie… the carb bender was loads of fun too!
The 12-day high-carb binge phase!
While I was on the 7-day trip in Turks & Caicos, we were obviously eating a lot at restaurants, which means lots of carbs, but we also stocked up at the grocery store and made breakfasts and lunches in our condo. Regardless, I wasn't shy about loading up on the carbos!
The purpose of the high carb binge phase was:
1. Allow myself to go a little nuts on vacation with food
2. Max out muscle glycogen to get a super "pump" during high volume weight training
3. Benefit from the extra calories and the extra insulin production to get a muscle building effect.
Although high insulin can trigger fat gain if left high for too long, elevating insulin strategically can also help to gain muscle. Gaining lean muscle can subsequently make fat loss easier due to your increased metabolic rate. Muscle is KEY to having a blazing metabolism for life!
During the carb binge period, I still had at least one daily serving of Athletic Greens, which is shockingly delicious for a "greens" drink. It's loaded with antioxidants, superfoods, and also lots of probiotics, so that was an important part of my regime to make sure my digestion was still going strong and all of my micro-nutrition was complete.
After the 7 days in Turks, we had 5 days at my parents house in Pennsylvania, and I continued the carb binge, as there was lots of cereal, pasta, and desserts lying around. In defense of my parents, they eat a healthier diet than 95% of the population… at least 75% of the meat that they eat comes from wild game or wild fish that they caught themselves.
And they grow most of their own organic produce for at least 7 months out of the year as they keep a huge organic garden in their backyard. But, they also eat bread and cereal almost daily and have sugary desserts almost daily too. So they eat more grains and sugar than I would recommend to anyone, but aside from that, they eat pretty healthy overall. They're very active too, so they are not overweight despite eating more grains and sugar than they probably should.
It was a carb feast!
While at my parents house, we had big pasta and venison sausage dinners, sandwiches, lots of bread, lots of cereal, and lots of ice cream every night for dessert. I was in a carb coma most of the time! This is almost a shock to my system since I eat such a low carb "paleo" style diet most of the time. But remember that I was utilizing these excess carbs for a PURPOSE! To build muscle. Of course, the carbs themselves aren't the building blocks of muscle (that's the job of protein), but they add the extra calories and the biochemical environment that can make muscle building easier.
Although I might have loaded up on high carb foods that I wouldn't normally eat during this 12 day phase, such as pasta, cereals, muffins, and breads, I still stuck to my guns and refused to eat any artificial trans fats at all, and zero high fructose corn syrup as well. Those 2 food additives are just too evil in my mind.
Keep in mind that I also worked my arse off every day during this carb binge!
The high-carb binge phase workouts
My goal during the high carb binge phase was different than during the low carb phase. Since I was maxing out muscle glycogen with all of those carbs, I wanted to take advantage of that and do more high volume weight training and go for more of the "pump" with the workouts. One of the things we're trying to do is "stretch" the muscle fibers while in a pumped state.
This was also the only time that I would include some single joint "bodybuilding" style exercises into my routine, such as bicep curls, tricep presses, dumbell pullovers, pec flyes, etc. However, the focus of the workouts was still multi-joint compound exercises first (such as squats, bench, lat pulls, barbell rows, dumbbell rows, etc), but in higher rep, high volume fashion.
In addition to the high volume "pump" style weight training during this carb binge phase, I was also doing a lot of daily firewood splitting with an axe to help my parents prep for next winter (I LOVE the muscular workout involved in splitting massive logs the old fashioned way!). This was a great way to help my parents with some of the yard work and get in some extra daily exercise.
So although it might have sounded careless (especially if you know my track record of healthy eating) for me to be carb bingeing so heavily, realize that I was also getting TONS of daily exercise and trying to make the best use of those excess carbs for building muscle.
Back to a lower carb plan again…
Now that I'm back home, I'm back on a lower carb plan again eating almost solely meats, lots of veggies, eggs, nuts, seeds, avocados, etc. When I'm on a lower carb "paleo" style plan, if I had to estimate my macro-nutrient ratios, I'd say it's probably around 15% carbs, 35% protein, and 50% healthy fats.
Side note: One of the purposes of the super heavy, low rep weight training during the low-carb, high fat phase is that both of these aspects (the heavy training and the high fat intake) help to maximize healthy testosterone levels… which is obviously good for both maintaining muscle and losing body fat, among other benefits. I have another article here that explains the exact workout methods that help increase both testosterone and growth hormone naturally to help lose body fat and build muscle faster.
After my first workout back on a lower-carb plan today, I broke lifetime personal records in 3 of my lifts on strength levels! Score! Yes, that was a benefit of this type of cycling. And I guarantee that losing that last bit of abdominal fat is going to be easy over the next couple weeks of low carb eating now that I'm carrying a few pounds more lean muscle on my frame.
I'll continue a low carb cycle again for another 2-3 weeks before I go on another carb binge for 10-12 days.
I've done this type of cycle several times in the last 4 months or so, and I can say that I've improved body composition every time… more muscle and less fat after all was said and done!
If you have a vacation coming up and want to "go nuts" on the carbs and calories while on vacation, keep this strategy in mind and make sure to do the low carb "priming" for 10-14 days before the trip and about 2 weeks after the trip too, before settling back to your "maintenance" diet.
This plan of low carb and high carb cycling and associated workout modifications can also be used even if you're not going on vacation… but it sure is fun on vacation!
The breakdown of our food growing systems poses one of the biggest threats to our survival. Our existence depends upon our agricultural systems, but what do our agricultural systems depend on? The answer: water, air and soil. These basic elements support all life-forms and without them, life as we know it cannot be sustained.
In nature, food grows as part of an ecosystem. An ecosystem is an ecological system that is made up of many biological parts, or components, that all interact with one another. These components are mostly made up of organisms such as plants and animals. They feed on each other and depend on each others' presence to survive.
Just as plant and animal components are dependent on each other, basic life-supporting systems – water, air and soil – are also dependent on each another. For example, the flow of air affects rainfall and rainfall affects the flow of air. In addition, life-supporting systems are dependent on the components and vice versa. For example, soil is created by plants and plants are created by soil. In summary, components are dependent on life-supporting systems and the life-supporting systems are dependent on components. However, it gets even more complicated than that.
Within the basic life-supporting systems – water, air and soil – there are sub-systems. If we take a look at water, it can be broken up into many sub-systems, including: rainfall, surface water, ground water, humidity and transpiration. It is not necessary (or even possible) to understand everything that's going on within an ecosystem, however it is very important to understand this:
Each and every component, system and sub-system is important in running the overall ecosystem. When you disturb one, the others start to fall apart.
Humans once lived as part of ecosystems. We were just one of many ecological components within an ecosystem. We were also part of the food chain; sometimes preyed upon, but mostly a predator. When we discovered cultivation we discovered many advantages, such as being able to grow staple crops in relative density. By clearing an area of its natural components we have been able to increase the quantity of a single, useful component such as a commercial crop.
A typical farming operation strives to eliminate as many ecological components as possible so that a predetermined yield of a specific crop can be obtained. For example, a farmer sows 10 acres of wheat and expects to achieve a yield within a certain range. If it's a good year he will achieve the upper end of the range and if it's a bad year he will achieve the lower end of the range. This offers him a relatively secure livelihood and he can live his life in accordance to the money he makes from his predetermined yield. It makes perfect sense from an economic point of view.
However, this only works when the basic life-supporting systems are working, hence, adequate water, air and soil. The problem is that these basic systems are part of an ancient ecosystem that is long gone. The soils that we now grow crops in were part of a natural ecosystem and the millions of components that once existed were a critical part of keeping the basic life-supporting systems healthy and functioning.
By stripping the land of natural components we start to see the degradation of the basic life-supporting systems – water, soil and air. When a large number of living components are removed, these natural systems break down because the components and the systems are interrelated. As a diversity of plants and animals are replaced with a single species of crop, we start to see effects on the way the basic water, air and soil systems operate. Water moves faster and is not filtered by a variety of plants. This usually lowers the ground water and leaves the surface hotter and drier. The hotter surface moves the air in different ways causing rain clouds to travel away from the area causing localized drought conditions. Overall fertility is lost from soils as water moves out of the system at a greater rate. The temperatures are hotter in summer and colder in winter as there are fewer plants to thermoregulate the area. Rainfall becomes more unpredictable as the air current is affected by hotter ground temperatures. It eventually gets difficult to grow the commercial crop.
Modern-day human intervention can offer short-term solutions, but cannot fix the cause of the problem. Irrigation from bores cannot provide a sustainable solution to the breakdown of the water system. Irrigation only lowers the ground water further making the problem even bigger than it was. The use of groundwater is not a bad practice in all cases, but it doesn't fix the root problem. Likewise, inorganic fertilizers will not repair the soil systems. If a soil is being leached of nutrients due to water passing through it too quickly and hungry hybrid crops feeding on it, it will not be repaired by adding more minerals. The same forces that are depleting the soils are still happening, so the soils will continue to become depleted. Inorganic fertilizers cannot restore soil structure and cannot build new soil, like a natural ecosystem can.
Commonsense will tell you that if there are no natural soil-building systems in place and soils are being lost and degraded, then fertilizer dependence must increase. Year after year more fertilizer will be needed to obtain the same yield. Remember, the farmer depends on a predetermined yield to fulfill his lifestyle, but now there is a greater cost to maintain that yield, in the form of store-bought fertilizers. As costs increase, net profits decrease and eventually the whole operation becomes economically nonviable. When you add market instability and retail competitiveness to the equation, you can see how difficult it would be to survive as a farmer. The solution, so far, has been to cut the amount of human labor on farms because they are the most expensive part of the operation. This is done by increasing the size of the operation and the equipment. Large conglomerate companies can grow crops over thousands of acres, tended by very few humans. In ecological terms, this means less diversity over a larger area, which means less natural components and less natural systems in operation. Of course, the result is that the basic life-supporting systems; water, air and soil, will be ruined at a quicker rate. Surely that means that even these massive operations will eventually become too costly to run.
The only way to keep an ecosystem alive and healthy is to make sure the basic life-supporting systems – water, air and soil – are intact. This applies to any patch of land, whether it's a native forest, a farm or an urban garden. Every ecosystem is just a smaller part of a larger ecosystem. In fact, the whole planet could be referred to as a single ecosystem. What we do on a local level may only cause a tiny effect, but if a significant number of local people start doing the same thing, then it will cause an effect on a slightly larger scale. If this is replicated on a big enough scale, then eventually, our actions can affect an entire planet.
There is no buffer that can protect you from the global breakdown of the basic life-supporting systems – water, air and soil. However, you can cause an effect on your immediate surroundings. To restore our basic life-supporting systems – water, air and soil – we need to increase the number and diversity of biological components. Diversity is the answer. Remember, an ecosystem has millions of components, systems and sub-systems operating in a given area. These systems need each other for their survival. We can add diversity to our backyards and farms in the form of plants and animals. Once we start to add biological components, they will start to support more biological components. The addition of biological components, in the form of plants and animals, will start to build soil. This in turn will slow down the flow of water and keep it in our property. Trees and other plants will reduce and capture water lost from ground evaporation, mulch soils and create niche spaces for more life-forms. Your property will be better regulated in terms of temperature and humidity. It will be cooler in summer and warmer in winter. This, in turn, helps the plants to yield more, creating more biomass and better soil. There will be more opportunities for life forms and the basic life-supporting systems; water, air and soil will be more supportive and better able to meet your needs. As these basic systems become healthier, more sub-systems will appear. Systems within systems will start to rev up and biological components (plants and animals) will increase in number, diversity and health.
To give you an idea of how this may look in real terms, imagine this; a backyard that had a massive number of edible and non-edible plants of differing size, shape, habit, colour and form. Also, imagine a diversity of domestic and wild animals, native and introduced, edible and non-edible. Now, try to imagine a system where these plants and animals coexist in a way that they fed each other and, at the same time, create surplus food for humans.
Using a mixture of edible and non-edible plants is important. Not everything within the system should be directly consumed by humans. Non-edible plants create the structure that supports the edible species. They should be planted in sensitive areas such as hilltops and drainage lines and in strips along contours on slopes. They act as water filters, native habitats, climate controllers and soil builders. Edible plants fill in the spaces only after the basic supporting structure is in place.
Ecosystems are in a constant state of change and so are sustainable food growing systems. This makes it very difficult to predetermine the yield from year to year. The system needs the freedom to change as the components and systems evolve. This is the most difficult part for humans to understand. In our current way of farming we strive to make each year the same so that the yield can be predetermined, even when the conditions are changing. Sustainable agriculture calls for a massive faith in natural laws and absolute respect for the basic life-supporting systems.
I have seen many agricultural systems, but very few sustainable ones. I have even seen several organically-certified farms that are practicing agriculture in a way that is depleting the basic life-supporting systems; soil, air and water. Rather than buying inorganic fertilizers, they simply purchase organic fertilizers. These organic farmers have little understanding of natural systems and just operate in a similar way to traditional farmers, only their job is more difficult without the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides. The food they produce may be free of chemicals, but they are slowly killing the basic life-supporting systems; water, air and soil.
To make the world a healthier place is not difficult. Even if you don't get the design as perfect as you possibly could, just the addition of a diversity of plants will create a positive effect on the basic life-supporting systems. However, if you can get the components arranged in a way that they feed off one another to create a cyclic flow of energy, then you are starting to mimic a natural ecosystem. As the site matures, the basic life-supporting systems – water, air and soil – will start to be restored. That is when the system becomes self-sufficient and will provide excess food for humans, with minimal effort. In fact, at that point, we will have returned to the past and, once again, be just another ecological component within an ecosystem.
Is Sun Exposure Really “Deadly” as the Media Would Have You Believe? Or Can Regular Sunshine Give You a Better Body and Health?
One thing that never made sense to me over the years was how the media and other sources have always tried to portray sun exposure as "the sun's deadly rays". It's as if they would have you believe that we need to live in caves and never see the sun to prevent cancer and stay in good health.
But this is absurd if you think about it… the sun is THE provider of all life on earth. Without the sun, everything on earth would die.
Throughout the majority of human existence (with the exception of the last few decades), humans have always spent more time outdoors than indoors. Nowadays however, most of us are trapped inside offices all week long and might only get out into the sun once a week, if that.
I've been doing a lot of reading and research over the last couple of years regarding sun exposure, cancer, vitamin D levels, etc. This subject of the sun and natural production of vitamin D can fill entire books, so I'll try to summarize my opinions and what I've learned in the past few years through a lot of my reading.
Don't worry, I'm not ignoring the fact that overexposure to the sun CAN cause problems, including cancer… but we need to also consider the fact that underexposure to the sun can have problems as well.
Let's look at a few points to consider:
1. Non-consistent sun exposure and infrequent SUNBURNS is the major cause of damage to the skin and increased risk of cancer… Think about your typical person that sits inside an office all week long without ever seeing the sun, and then gets FRIED at the pool or the beach on the weekend. THIS is where the damage occurs.
2. Regular consistent small amounts of exposure to the sun (without burning) can actually have a protective effect on the skin, increases healthful Vitamin D levels in the body, and can improve mood, help depression, and dozens of other benefits. Each individual's skin pigmentation determines what amount of sun exposure they can safely obtain without doing more harm than good.
For example, a very fair-skinned person with a far northern heritage might only be able to get 10-15 minutes of sun exposure over the majority of the body during peak hours before it does more harm than good. However, someone with darker skin and a heritage that originated closer to the equator might be able to get much longer periods of regular sun exposure without doing more harm than good.
3. Increasing Vitamin D levels from regular small doses of sunshine can actually decrease cancer risk. Vitamin D itself has been shown to have a protective effect through various processes in the body.
4. This one is interesting and deserves some thought — According to Dr William Grant, a Vitamin D researcher, cancer rates in those living at high latitudes (farther north) such as Iceland are approximately 4 TIMES the cancer rates of those living at lower latitudes (closer to the equator) in the tropics.
Hmm, yet those people living in the tropics are getting MUCH higher levels of those so-called "deadly sun rays"… but they are also producing higher levels of protective Vitamin D on average too.
5. Vitamin D is actually produced into a hormone in our bodies and regulates hundreds of processes in the body, and is WAY MORE important to almost every single aspect of your health than most people realize. There is even evidence that due to the regulation of so many hormonal processes in our bodies that can be affected by Vitamin D, producing enough Vitamin D in your body can even help with fat loss, muscle building, blood sugar control, and hundreds of other factors.
6. It is hard to obtain enough Vitamin D from dietary sources alone (egg yolks, organ meats, and fatty fish are good sources, but still relatively small). The best utilized source of Vitamin D is what we produce in our bodies from moderate regular sun exposure over large portions of the body without burning. It's vitally important to note that the UV-B rays are only strong enough to trigger vitamin D production in your body between the hours of approximately 10am to 3pm. Of course, this is the exact time that well-meaning, but uneducated "health experts" erroneously tell you to stay out of the sun.
UV-B rays aren't strong enough in the early morning or late afternoon to trigger vitamin D production, so you must get moderate exposure over large portions of your body for small amounts of time (10-30 minutes depending on skin pigmentation) in the middle of the day to reap the benefit of Vitamin D production.
7. An antioxidant-rich diet can help to protect the skin (to an extent) from damage if you get too much sun exposure. This means that getting lots of antioxidants from things such as various teas (green, black, white, rooibos, yerba mate, chammomile, etc), various berries, fruits, vegetables, beta carotene, nuts, olive oil, etc, etc can help to protect your skin. Make sure to pick up some Prograde Longevity – a super high ORAC antioxidant blend that I take to help increase my antioxidant levels in the body.
8. Another point that proves that irregular burning is the major cause of damage and not regular small doses of sunshine… Rates of skin cancer are typically higher in areas of the body that get irregular sun and occasional burning as opposed to areas of the body that have received consistent sun for your entire life.
Notice how more cancer is often found on the back and chest (places that get irregular sun and more burning) vs the back of the neck or the forearms (which get consistent regular sun for most people our entire lives). There are exceptions to everything, but this seems to be a common trend.
9. I've come across studies over the last few years that indicated skin caner rates are higher among indoor office workers compared to outdoor workers. This is yet another interesting trend… it basically supports the conclusion that being underexposed to sunlight most of the time (working inside an office all week long) and then getting infrequent overexposure to the sun is a lot more problematic compared to an outdoor worker that gets regular daily sun exposure.
Of course, the indoor worker can always avoid this problem by getting outside for 10-20 minutes daily during breaks to get those protective small daily doses of sunshine that we've been talking about here.
10. Think about this issue in terms of common sense — Don't you feel a heck of a lot better and more energetic when you've at least gotten out in the sun for 20 or 30 minutes in a day rather than being stuck inside all day?
So what's the best way to do this in a healthy way while minimizing sun overexposure risk?
a. In the winter in northern latitudes (above approx South Carolina latitudes in the US), your vitamin D levels may fall to dangerously low levels if you go for several months without getting any sun. In winter, since your body will not be producing enough Vitamin D from the sun, you need to make sure to increase your intake in your diet… as I mentioned, fatty fish, egg yolks, and organ meats are some of the best dietary sources of vitamin D, but still generally don't increase your body's vitamin D levels that much.
I like to take a small amount of daily cod liver oil in the deepest months of winter to make sure my Vitamin D levels don't go too low. You also need to be careful not to take too much cod liver oil though as some scientists believe that excessive amounts of cod liver oil can give you overdoses of vitamin A.
Also, the source of vitamin D used in VGF-25 whole-foods based vitamin is a good natural form of vitamin D derived from fish liver oil. I would use this daily to make sure that your vitamin D levels are adequate, even in summer months, if you don't get daily sun exposure in the summer.
b. In the spring, try to start with just small periods in the sun such as 10-15 minutes/day over large portions of your body (not just your hands and face). The more skin surface exposed to the sun, the more vitamin D that your body will produce. Make sure to try to NEVER get a sunburn! Gradual small doses of sunshine over a large part of your body almost daily helps your body produce the most beneficial and protective Vitamin D levels.
c. Avoid extended periods of overexposure to the sun on large portions of your body… If you're going to be out for several hours or an entire day in the sun, you'll still need to make sure to cover up appropriately (based on your individual skin pigmentation and sensitivity) to prevent burning and skin damage… remember that we're talking about regular small doses of sunshine that is beneficial, not entire days out in the sun without covering up.
Warning about sunscreens:
I would caution against relying heavily on chemical-based sunscreens as most of the chemicals used in sunscreens are potentially carcinogenic and are also known to be estrogenic, as they absorb through your skin and into your body. If you're going to use a lotion based sunblock, you're best bet is a natural form that uses zinc oxide or titanium dioxide… These are natural sunblocks that don't absorb into your skin, but rather sit on top of the skin's surface and block the rays. This is a big difference compared to the harmful chemicals that are in most sunscreens and can absorb through your skin (various benzones, homosalate, etc). If you want to read more about the dangers of chemical sunscreens, this article will help.
d. Load up on antioxidant-rich foods such as various teas, fruits and veggies, berries, etc daily to help prevent free radical damage and protect your skin.
I think one of the most powerful and synergistic antioxidant blends available is here if you want some extra insurance on antioxidants.
e. Lastly, I'm not a doctor, so many of the points in this article are my opinions based on years of reading and research. Make sure to consult with your doctor on your individual health characteristics and how this relates to sun exposure and vitamin D.
f. Also make sure to read this article, as it shows a way to eat a nutrient for "internal sun protection" which can allow you to stay in the sun longer without damage to skin.